Chapter 03: The Beginner’s Guide to


Radio Frequency Fields

In this chapter, you’ll learn about radio frequency fields.

You’ll learn how and why they occur and what household electronics produce these man-made EMFs.

We also share what you can do to lessen your exposure.

Let’s begin:

Chapter Contents

Section 01

In a Nutshell

What are RF fields, in a nutshell? The quick and dirty.

Section 02

Learn More In-Depth

Learn more about RF fields and their possible dangers

Section 03

Measure Your Home Levels

Survey your home for RFs: Hire an EMF Pro or DIY?

Section 07

Review the Measurements

How to review your radio frequency field measurements.

Section 08

Take Action

Time to take the steps to reduce your RF exposure.

Section 09

Footnotes & Final Thoughts

Chapter footnotes, links, case studies and a final thought.

Section 01:


What are Radio Frequency Fields, In a Nutshell?

Below we give you the quick and dirty rundown on radio frequency fields.

Radio frequency fields, like AC magnetic fields, are how most people become aware of EMFs. They hear about the possible dangers of cell phones and then can’t help but notice the massive cell towers and smaller transmitters going up around their communities.

While cell phones and cell towers are obvious sources, these are far from the only way you and your family can be exposed to RF radiation.

What are Radio Frequency Fields, In a Nutshell?

Radio frequency fields can come from many internal and external sources.

In a nutshell, if you are in close proximity to cell towers, radar installations or have wi-fi, bluetooth devices, cell phones, cordless phones, wireless baby monitors or a microwave oven, you will have the presence of radio frequency fields in your home.

Unfortunately, the ambient levels of RF radiation in most cities is surprisingly high. Even if you lived like a Luddite and removed all wireless devices from your home you may still have high levels of RF simply from your city’s infrastructure and your neighbors’ tech devices.

More on this and how to lower your RF exposure from the various tech devices in your home later in the chapter.

Section 02:


Learn More About Radio Frequency Fields

Interested in learning more about radio frequency fields?

In this section we’ll go over some of the common internal and external sources of radio frequency fields you may encounter in and around your home.

Some of these field sources are sure to surprise you:

Deep Dive: An Overview of Radio Frequency Fields

If you take a moment to examine the Electromagnetic Spectrum graphic01 above, you’ll see that radio frequency (RF) radiation is the portion of the spectrum located between 3kHz and 300 GHz.

This portion of the spectrum is commonly divided into two sections: Radio Waves and Microwaves.

Radio waves encompass the following:

  • AM Radio (535 kilohertz to 1,700 kilohertz)
  • Shortwave Radio (5.9 megahertz to 26.1 megahertz)
  • CB Radio (26.96 megahertz to 27.41 megahertz)
  • FM Radio(88 megahertz and 108 megahertz)
  • TV Stations (54 – 88 megahertz and 174 – 220 megahertz)

Some of the Microwave emitting devices include:

  • Cell/mobile phones & towers (0.5 – 2.2 GHz and higher for 5G)
  • Smart meters used by electric/gas/water utilities (0.9 – 2.4 GHz)
  • Wi-fi (2.4 – 5.8 GHz)
  • Cordless phones (DECT phones, especially)
  • Devices that utilize bluetooth

Deep Dive: Further Explanations of RF Radiation & Ambient Sources of RF

Below are three videos that further explain what radio frequency radiation is, how cell phones work and the effect of ambient RF field exposure on humans.

What is RF?  Basic Training and Fundamental Properties
How does your mobile phone work? | ICT #1
Preliminary Report on Ambient Field Exposures

Common Sources of Radio Frequency Fields

External Sources

  • Cell towers
  • Radar installations near airports

Internal Sources

  • Cell phones
  • Smart meters used by electric/gas/water utilities
  • Wifi routers
  • Wifi enabled tablets (iPad, Kindle, Nook)
  • Cordless phones (CT1+, CT2+, DECT)
  • Bluetooth devices (speakers, watches, clocks)
  • Wireless baby monitors
  • Wireless doorbells
  • Wireless security systems
  • Wireless security cameras
  • Wireless lighting switches
  • Smart appliances (Wifi enabled fridges, stoves)
  • Smart thermostats
  • Smart speakers (Amazon Echo, Google Home)
  • Microwave ovens (this should be no surprise)

Unlike extremely low frequency AC magnetic fields and AC electric fields, the higher frequency RF radiation acts less like a wave and more like a beam. These pulsating beams allow the data transfers that make cell phones and wireless internet possible.

The downside to these amazing innovations is that these pulses may also be triggering biological effects throughout the human body. More on this below in the RF health section.

To view more sources of RF radiation, please visit our EMF Field Guides and our Step-by-Step EMF Guides to learn about many common, household sources of radio frequency fields.

4 Common Household RF Exposure Sources

Cell Phones

Almost every adult has one and the phones are almost never turned off or put in airplane mode in the home environment.


WiFi routers and WiFi devices that are communicating with the routers, such as laptops and tablets, produce RF exposure.

Home Smart Devices

Smart devices such as smart speakers, thermostats, lighting switches and appliances are pushing electrosmog into your home.

Cordless Phones

The newer DECT cordless phones can provide more RF exposure than some cell phones.

Keep Up To Date:


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“The voluntary exposure of the brain to microwaves from hand-held mobile phones… [is] the largest human biological experiment ever.”

Professor Leif Salford02
Head of Research
Lund University, Sweden

Health Concerns with RF Fields

National Toxicology Program Study

Unlike AC Magnetic Fields, there is a formidable epidemiological study for the harmful biological effects of radio frequency radiation on animals.

In 2016, the National Toxicology Program (known as the NTP and part of the National Institutes of Health) conducted the most comprehensive study yet on the effects of RF radiation. This $30 million dollar study provided confirmation that RF radiation from cell phones increases the risk of brain and heart tumors in rats.03

The study concluded the following:

The NTP studies found that high exposure to radio frequency radiation used by cell phones was associated with:


Clear evidence of tumors in the hearts of male rats. The tumors were malignant schwannomas.


Some evidence of tumors in the brains of male rats. The tumors were malignant gliomas.


Some evidence of tumors in the adrenal glands of male rats. The tumors were benign, malignant, or complex combined pheochromocytoma.

You, your family, or your pets may not be subjected the power or duration of exposure that the rats were in the study, but this study proves that non-ionizing radiation has biological consequences.

This study didn’t come out of the blue, either, as it was suspected that RF radiation was a problem prior to the NTP study.

In May of 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified RF radiation from cell phones into the Group 2B category (possible carcinogen). The 2B category list includes DDT, lead, engine exhaust, choroform and  glyphosate.04

We link to many more studies on our EMF Health Studies page.

The National Toxicology Program study proves that non-ionizing radio frequency radiation can cause severe, negative biological effects. With that knowledge, it’s probably safe to assume RF radiation can have less catastrophic biological effects, as well.

It’s our belief that they are contributing to a less restful, less restorative sleep for you and your family.

Insomnia and quality of sleep are complicated issues, but removing RF producing devices from your sleeping areas (such as a wi-fi router or a transmitting cell phone) is a no-brainer in our mind.

“Go to bed early, sleep well, eat moderately at breakfast; the future looks brighter. The world’s outlook may not have changed, but our capacity for dealing with it has.”

– Arthur Lynch

RF Field Health Studies

As mentioned above, the big radio frequency radiation study is the National Toxicology Program Cell Phone Study.

There are many more RF studies in our section on EMF Health Studies. There several on 5G and its potential dangers, as well.

Recap of Possible Radio Frequency Field Health Concerns


The National Toxicology Program Study showed that high exposure to RF was associated with certain tumors in rats.

WHO Classification

The World Health Organization classifies RF radiation from cell phones as “possibly carcinogenic.”

EHS Disorder

Radio frequency exposure is thought to be a main cause of Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity.

Melatonin & Sleep

The theory is radio frequency fields may lead to less melatonin production and result in poorer and less restorative sleep.

The Government & Wireless Industry are Looking Out for Our Health, Right?

Processing the National Toxicology Program study can be overwhelming at first.

In Chapter 01 – What are EMFs? , we discussed how the FCC guidelines were written in 1996 and haven’t since been updated.05

With this in mind, waiting for the FCC and the federal government to take the initiative in ensuring the safety of these devices is foolhardy. It’s apparent they have neither the incentive nor inclination to investigate this further.

Realistically, this means that our external, urban environments are going to have elevated radio frequency radiation levels from the surrounding wireless infrastructure.

You do, however, have a lot of control over your internal environment and should focus on reducing or eliminating these sources of the RF radiation. We recommend focusing on these sources first.

Having said all this, we do feel it’s important to fight for your rights as a citizen to not be inundated with RF everywhere you go Learn more about how to make noise politically by visiting our EMF Activism page.

Section 03:


Learn How to Measure Radio Frequency Fields

We’ve gone over why you’d want to measure radio frequency fields.

Now let’s go over how RF fields are measured.

We’ll also go over whether you should hire an EMF professional or do the RF measurements yourself.

Let’s get started:

Testing Your Home: Contact an EMF Pro or DIY?

Testing for radio frequency fields is something that everyone can do and there are reasonably priced entry-level RF meters that can give you a decent approximation of your RF radiation exposure levels and source location.

We’ll go over some of these below in our DIY EMF section.

As with other EMF measurements, the benefit of hiring EMF specialists is they will provide extensive experience and training, professional-grade meter accuracy and will help you determine and move forward with an appropriate RF/EMF reduction plan.

EMF reduction and shielding expertise is one advantage of hiring an EMF specialist. They often know contractors that have experience installing RF shielding films and properly grounded RF blocking paint.

RF logging is another valuable service that a consultant with a professional grade meter can provide.

DIY EMF surveying is less costly, but may take longer and be out of the comfort zone for some people.

If you begin the DIY EMF process and encounter problems or have questions, most EMF consultants will have reasonable hourly phone consultation rates.

Here are some remote EMF consultants if you’re interested and don’t have a local professional.

To better appreciate the pros and cons of contacting an EMF professional vs. doing-it-yourself, please see our page titled, “Contact an EMF Consultant or DIY?

Deep Dive: How Radio Frequency Fields are Measured

An RF meter is used used to discover and measure the power density of the radio frequency fields. Many of the RF meters on the market are dual-use or triple-use and are combined with field voltage meters (for electric field measurement) and gaussmeters (for magnetic field measurement).

Radio frequency fields are most commonly measured in microWatts per meter squared (µW/m2).06 However, they can also be measured in microWatts per square centimeter (µW/cm2), milliWatts per square meter (mWm2) or Volts per meter (V/m).

See our section on our recommended RF meters below or visit our “The Best EMF Meters to Purchase in 2020” page to view other options or read our EMF meter reviews.

DIY – Selecting a Meter to Measure Radio Frequency Fields

As previously mentioned, radio frequency fields are primarily measured using an RF meter.

Measuring properly with a either can give you an accurate assessment of your radio frequency field exposure, which in turn allows you to draw up a plan to reduce your exposure.

One of our recommended entry-level RF meters is the Trifield TF2 EMF meter. Read our review of the Trifield TF2. The TF2 also includes a gaussmeter and field voltage meter for magnetic and electric field detection.

If you only need radio frequency field detection, the Safe and Sound Pro II is and excellent choice. Use the coupon code DIYEMF to save on your purchase from Safe Living Technologies.

The Trifield TF2 and three other alternatives can be seen below.

DIY – How to detect RF Fields with an EMF meter

RF meters can vary in ease of use.   Due to the variety of models on the market it can be difficult to demonstrate the use of and address all the possible issues that meter owners may encounter.

We always recommend reading the accompanying manual thoroughly.  If there are still questions or issues afterwards, the next step is to search “How to use + EMF METER MODEL YOU PURCHASED” in both Youtube and your preferred search engine.

You’re likely to find some great instructional videos from both the meter manufacturers and EMF consultants.

DIY – Worksheets to Use When Taking RF Field Measurements

We offer printable PDFs of worksheets to record your radio frequency field measurements and other EMFs to those readers that support our cause by purchasing a PDF or kindle version of the Beginner’s Guide to EMFs. It makes a great gift for those family members that may be unaware of what EMFs are or how the fields may be affecting them.

Please consider supporting this worthy cause by purchasing this EMF Guide (PDF, Kindle or eReader) or providing us with a small donation.

Section 04:


Review Your Radio Frequency Field Measurements

Okay, so you’ve taken radio frequency field measurements or had an EMF pro do it for you.

What do the readings mean?

Next, we’ll give you international and domestic standards from which to compare your RF readings

Let’s dive in:

Understanding the results of your RF Field study

Below are the Building Biology guidelines for radio frequency fields in sleeping areas. You can read the original PDF here.

The good folks over at Safe Living Technologies also have an Education section with Building Biology and International EMF Guidelines that you can download and use as a reference.

It’s important to note that these are specific recommendations for sleeping areas. The Building Biology field views bedrooms and sleeping areas as especially important due to the restorative nature of sleep. As such, the guidelines are some of the most conservative you’ll come across.

Learn more about the Building Biology profession and their guiding principles.

Section 05:


Take Action to Reduce Your RF Field Exposure

You’ve taken RF measurements and reviewed the results.

Now it’s time to take action.

In this section we’ll give you some actionable tips on how to lower your exposure to radio frequency fields.

Let’s get started:

Take Action: Reduce Your Exposure

Taking action in reducing you, your family’s and your pet’s exposure to radio frequency fields often takes the form of six steps:

a) creating distance from external RF field sources
b) reduction or elimination of cell phone use
c) reduction or elimination of Wi-fi use
d) reduction or elimination of bluetooth use
e) creating distance from other internal RF field sources
f) shielding

Creating Distance from External Sources

Cell phone towers are the main external source of radio frequency fields, but wi-fi and boosters from neighbors can also be factors.

The farther you are from these external sources the lower your radio frequency radiation exposure will be.

If you do find yourself with elevated levels due to external sources, there are shielding options which we get into below.

An example would be canopies (for sleeping and working in) that use RF blocking fabric. If installed correctly, these effectively provide “RF Safe Zones.”

Reduction or Elimination of Cell Phone Use

Cell phones are an extremely common RF radiation source for people.

While we realize it’s difficult to give up your phone completely due to family and business obligations, here are some steps to lower you and your family’s exposure:

1) Put the phone in “airplane mode” when not in use. Make sure the wi-fi and bluetooth functions on your phone are turned off, as well.

You can then check your phone for messages or texts every half hour to hour, if need be.

2) When talking on the phone, put the phone in “speakerphone” mode and place it on a surface adjacent to you. You don’t want the phone near your head and, preferably, touching you body at all.

3) If a child is using a phone for entertainment, make sure the phone is in airplane mode, during the duration of use.

Reduction or Elimination of Wi-fi Use

If you don’t need wi-fi for essential medical or security systems, we recommend turning off your wireless router entirely and using shielded ethernet cable to connect to the internet.

Your internet speed will improve considerably and an audio/video installer can provide outlets in all the places in your home where you might need to plug in.

Reduction or Elimination of Bluetooth Use

Bluetooth is incorporated into a lot of products these days, from speakers to electronic components to wearable tech.

We recommend researching all these products before purchasing to ensure that you can turn off this functionality when not in use.

Creating Distance from Internal Sources

If you can’t eliminate the internal RF sources simply create distance between the sources and where you, your family members or pets spend time.

This can mean putting the wi-fi router at the opposite end of the home from where the bedrooms in the house are. Or making sure that you take off your Apple Watch before going to bed, so that you aren’t sleeping with it directly against your head.

Many more examples can be found in our EMF Field Guides and our Step-by-Step EMF Guides.

Shielding RF Fields

Shielding radio frequency fields can be achieved through a few different ways, such as window film, RF blocking paint and grounded canopies.

To learn more about RF shielding please visit our sections on Home EMF Shielding and Personal EMF Shielding.

Section 06:


In Conclusion: Case Studies, Resources, & Footnotes

Below are some final thoughts we have on radio frequency fields

There’s also some interesting RF field resources below.

We’ve included a few case studies that EMF Experts have experienced in the field. These make for an interesting read, as well.

Lastly, we’ve added all the footnotes from the chapter.

Stories from EMF Specialists – EMF Case studies

We’ll have these up shortly.

Many of these experts are available for remote EMF consulting via Telephone/Zoom/Facetime/Skype and can be extremely helpful in locating problematic areas of electromagnetic exposure.

EMF Resources – RF Fields

To learn more about EMFs, in general, please visit our EMF Learning Resources page.

To learn more about EMF research and epidemiological studies, many dealing with radio frequency fields, please visit our EMF Health Studies page.

A Final Note on RF Fields and RF Radiation

It’s important to be aware of and reduce your radio frequency field exposure exposure in sleeping and working environments. The NTP study proves biological harm, but, at a minimum, the fields are likely influencing the quality and duration of your sleep.

If there isn’t a need for Wi-Fi to be on at night (an alarm system, health monitoring system or something of the sort), turn the router off during sleeping hours.

If you aren’t expecting an important telephone call, put your phone in airplane mode.

As they say in the Building Biology07 field, “Nature is the gold standard.”

With that in mind, provide your family, your pets and yourself the most restorative sleeping environments possible.

Radio Frequency Field Chapter Notes

01 – Graphic Note

The original graphic is used with permission from the National Cancer Institute, with some additions made to better illustrate where man-made EMF sources are located.

02 – Professor Salford

His university page is located here.

More information on Professor Salford and a list of his articles can be found here.

03 – National Toxicology Program Study

Read the National Toxicology Program Cell Phone Study.

04 – World Health Organization

Here’s the WHO press release detailing their change in classification. On the page is a downloadable PDF.

05 – 1996 FTC Cell Phone Guidelines

Straight from the horse’s mouth.

06 – microWatts per meter squared (µW/m2)

While EMF specialists tend use this most commonly, you will have people use V/m, as well.

07 – Institute of Building-Biology and Ecology

Learn more about Building Biology and IBE.

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